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{ Category Archives } Software Correctness

ALIVe: Automatic LLVM InstCombine Verifier

[This post was jointly written by Nuno Lopes, David Menendez, Santosh Nagarakatte, and John Regehr.] A modern compiler is a big, complex machine that contains a lot of moving parts, including many different kinds of optimizations. One important class of optimization is peephole optimizations, each of which translates a short sequence of instructions into a […]

Finding Compiler Bugs by Removing Dead Code

I was pretty bummed to miss PLDI this year, it has been my favorite conference recently. One of the talks I was most interested in seeing was Compiler Validation via Equivalence Modulo Inputs by some folks at UC Davis. Although I had been aware of this paper (which I’ll call “the EMI paper” from now […]

We Need Hardware Traps for Integer Overflow

Processors should support integer math instructions that optionally trap on overflow. Because popular architectures lack this feature, otherwise excellent modern systems programming languages, such as Rust, Go, and D, have default integer types that wrap. This is bad because unexpected wrapping causes programs to produce incorrect results, although of course integer overflow in a safe […]

A Guide to Better Scripty Code for Academics

[Suresh suggested that I write a piece about unit testing for scripty academic software, but the focus changed somewhat while I was writing it.] Several kinds of software are produced at universities. At one extreme we have systems like Racket and ACL2 and HotCRP that are higher quality than most commercial software. Also see the […]

This Is Not a Defect

In several previous blog entries I’ve mentioned that in some recent versions of C and C++, left-shifting a 1 bit into the high-order bit of a signed integer is an undefined behavior. In other words, if you have code that computes INT_MIN by evaluating 1

How Should You Write a Fast Integer Overflow Check?

Detecting integer overflow in languages that have wraparound semantics (or, worse, undefined behavior on overflow, as in C/C++) is a pain. The issue is that programming languages do not provide access to the hardware overflow flag that is set as a side effect of most ALU instructions. With the condition codes hidden, overflow checks become […]

Testing with Small Capacities

The goal of testing is to expose bugs. To find a bug we must drive the software under test into a part of its state space where the bug becomes evident, for example by causing a crash. Many bugs lurk in dark corners of the state space that are ordinarily difficult to reach. This piece […]

Find the Integer Bug

Not all of the functions below are correct. The first person to leave a comment containing a minimal fix to a legitimate bug will get a small prize. I’m posting this not because the bug is particularly subtle or interesting but rather because I wrote this code for a piece about integer overflow and thought […]

A New Development for Coverity and Heartbleed

As a consequence of my last post, I spent some time on the phone Friday with Andy Chou, Coverity’s CTO and former member of Dawson Engler’s research group at Stanford, from which Coverity spun off over a decade ago. Andy confirmed that Coverity does not spot the heartbleed flaw and said that it remained stubborn […]

Heartbleed and Static Analysis

Today in my Writing Solid Code class we went through some of the 151 defects that Coverity Scan reports for OpenSSL. I can’t link to these results but take my word for it that they are a pleasure to read — the interface clearly explains each flaw and the reasoning that leads up to it, […]